See for example: World Vision Canada 2015. The results of a survey of 33 Filipino live-in care workers between 2012 and 2014 found evidence of withholding immigration documents and threat of deportation (reported by six workers), physical violence (five workers), accusations (18), insults (15), psychological, moral and sexual harassment (13), and different types of threats (15), such as threat of being reported to the immigration authorities. The African Slave Trade was not only a segment of US history. This documentary chronicles slavery as it occurred "in Canada" prior to Confederation and refers to colonial Canada. In November 2017, PSPC also began seeking input from apparel suppliers to develop guidelines for the ethical procurement of apparel.69 As part of the request, suppliers selling apparel to the federal government will have to self-certify that their direct Canadian and foreign suppliers comply with local laws and international labour rights and human rights standards, such as forced labour and access to fair wages and safe working conditions. "If we are looking at one of the legacies of slavery in Canada, it made white people white and Black people Black. Comments on this story are moderated according to our Submission Guidelines. The Canadian government publishes statistics on human trafficking convictions and identified cases. In Canada, forced labour exploitation affects migrant workers, particularly those migrating to Canada under the ‘low-skilled’ temporary visa streams of the Temporary Foreign Workers Program (TFWP), including the low-wage and primary agricultural streams,2 the Seasonal Agricultural Workers Program (SAWP), and the Live-In Caregiver program (LCP).3 Although the Canadian government ceased accepting any new applications for the LCP from 30 November 2014, there are still many migrants working as caregivers who entered Canada under the former LCP stream. Grant, M 2016, ‘Amanda McGee sentenced to 8 years for human trafficking, sexual assault’. There was indigenous slavery and black slavery, but it was not the same sort of slavery you would see in the south with cotton fields or sugar cane fields. Specific examples include working without pay, performing tasks outside the scope of the employment contract, not receiving vacation or overtime pay, working extremely long hours, deduction of “fees” for food or accommodation from pay cheques, and particularly for women, sexual violence. Comments are welcome while open. The impact of the Modern Slavery Act, two years on. As referenced in: Canadian Women’s Foundation 2014. As part of the act, slavery was abolished in most British colonies which resulted in around 800,000 slaves being freed in the Caribbean as well as South Africa and a small amount in Canada. It is the first international trial against a corporation on grounds of modern slavery within its supply chains. **This episode originally aired Feb. 25, 2018. For much of the 1600s, the American colonies operated as … PSPC also announced it will meet with suppliers, industry associations and other stakeholders in the apparel industry to discuss current practices on ethical manufacturing and sourcing throughout their supply chains.70 The government of Canada, through PSPC, reportedly has active contracts for the procurement of apparel totalling more than Can$640 million (US$509 million71).72, In 2016, the Walk Free Foundation and WikiRate73 partnered to develop a UK Modern Slavery Act Research project that would contribute to transparency on corporate action on modern slavery by enabling members of the public to view and assess modern slavery statements produced under Section 54 of the UK Modern Slavery Act.74 Section 54 requires businesses either headquartered or conducting business in the UK and with an annual turnover of over GBP36 million per annum to release an annual statement on the actions they are taking to respond to modern slavery.75 There are an estimated 12,000 to 17,000 statements that will be produced under this reporting requirement, many of which are housed on the Business and Human Rights Resource Centre (BHRRC) Modern Slavery Registry.76. This legislation also made Canada free land for enslaved American Blacks. Therefore, true estimates are difficult to attain. To encourage thoughtful and respectful conversations, first and last names will appear with each submission to CBC/Radio-Canada's online communities (except in children and youth-oriented communities). Although the merits of the claim have not yet been heard, this case highlights an increasing global trend for foreign courts to hold companies accountable for human rights abuses.87. ’16-year-old boy charged with sex trafficking of Edmonton girl’ 2018. By submitting a comment, you accept that CBC has the right to reproduce and publish that comment in whole or in part, in any manner CBC chooses. Follow through with reviewing government procurement guidelines and policies to introduce measures prohibiting that government agencies use businesses suspected of using forced labour or purchasing products that were made using forced labour. The image of Canada as a safe haven for enslaved African Americans was born, and thousands of fugitives and free Blacks would arrive on Canadian soil between 1834 and the early 1860s. We can’t forget that slavery was legal in New France and in British North America until 1834. Black children are more likely to be in foster care. These findings indicate that the majority of identified forced marriage victims are of a very young age.23 The report also revealed that most victims were born overseas, coming from over 30 countries in Africa, Asia, Europe, North America and South America, while 22 victims were Canadian citizens. Most of the first Black people living in colonial Canada were enslaved, and even after abolition, they were often landless and poor. This includes Westridge Construction80 among others. The Act was one of the most controversial elements of the 1850 compromise and heightened Northern fears of a "slave power conspiracy. Campaigners demand compensation to address the deep socio-economic divide. Here is his poem On the Pro-Slavery (Canuck) Unconscious: A Sestina Denouncing Continued Oppression. Children in care are at increased risk of being targeted by traffickers due to prior neglect and limited oversight in the child welfare system, which may also result in children running away from care.36 Indigenous women and girls are particularly vulnerable due to a range of factors, including family violence, childhood abuse, poverty, homelessness, lack of education, and substance addictions, combined with the remote living conditions of many Indigenous communities.37 The impact of colonisation and intergenerational trauma, such as racial discrimination, oppression, and sexual violence, also plays a role in the vulnerability of Indigenous women and girls.38, In the TFWP, migrants with valid work permits under the ‘low-skilled’ streams are most vulnerable to conditions amounting to forced labour, including those under the low-wage and the primary agricultural streams.39 A lack of monitoring and enforcement under the TFWP has also made it easier for illegal practices to take place, such as charging migrants excessive recruitment fees that result in substantial debt and indentured labour.40 These workers are vulnerable to exploitation and trafficking as a result of several conditions of the TFWP, including barriers to attaining permanent status, and employer-specific work permits that tie immigration status to a single employer, causing migrant workers to risk deportation if they leave their job.41 Migrant workers may be threatened with deportation, forced to live in sub-standard conditions, or forced to work in dangerous conditions without receiving any workplace health and safety information or training.42, Migrant farm workers entering Canada through the SAWP are particularly vulnerable to exploitation as they are dependent on their employers for accommodation, food, and employment, and often work and live in isolated rural areas.43 It is also reported that temporary foreign workers often face language barriers that means they may sign work contracts they do not understand and are charged illegal recruitment fees in their home countries, leaving them under pressure of paying off significant debt.44 Every year thousands of seasonal workers from Jamaica, Mexico, and other Caribbean countries come to work in rural Canadian communities under the SAWP and the TFWP.45 Their precarious visa status renders migrant workers vulnerable to abuse and mistreatment.46 Migrant workers who become ill or injured in Canada may have their work permit confiscated due to their inability to work and may consequently be sent home without access to adequate health care.47 SAWP workers who become injured at work face repatriation and denial of medical treatment. [15, http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2015/30/contents/enacted, https://www.modernslaveryregistry.org/explore?countries%5B%5D=1495&company_name=&legislation_UK+Modern+Slavery+Act=yes, http://claihr.ca/2017/04/06/araya-v-nevsun-resources-ltd-an-overview/, https://s3-ap-southeast-2.amazonaws.com/walkfreefoundation.org-assets/content/uploads/2018/03/29152400/02_The-Nevsun-Effect-1801229-Final-.pdf. It also notes that the NAP has made a limited contribution to the investigation and prosecution of trafficking crimes due to a range of external factors, such as jurisdictional constraint and the difficulty of collecting sufficient evidence for the prosecution, which limits the ability of federal law enforcement agencies to conduct such investigations.61 A new NAP had not yet been published at the time of writing. Canadian boards are facing mounting pressures to address a broader range of issues in light of a burgeoning movement in American corporate governance urging boards to look beyond the interests of their shareholders. A 2017 report by the United Nations Human Rights Working Group called on Canada to recognize the lasting damage done by slavery and segregation. Please note that CBC does not endorse the opinions expressed in comments. These statements vary in quality, with some companies including comprehensive information on their response to modern slavery in supply chains all the way through to statements that are not available on the home page or have not been signed by a CEO or Director. He allegedly lured the girl with gifts, held her against her will, and forced her into the sex trade.21, According to a report by the South Asian Legal Clinic of Ontario (SALCO) released in 2013, 30 agencies surveyed in Ontario and Quebec reported 219 forced marriage cases between 2010 and 2012. In fact, Canada currently has no specific modern slavery disclosure or supply chain transparency legislation. He has filed for radio, print and television, from the BBC and the CBC to Al Jazeera, the Guardian, the Toronto Star and Le Monde Diplomatique. Building a commercial enterprise out of the wilderness required labor and lots of it. Twenty statements have been released to date by Canadian companies. The plaintiffs allege that they were conscripted by the Eritrean government under their ‘National Service Program’ and forced to build the mine under conditions of modern slavery.86 Therefore, the plaintiffs claim that Nevsun Resources was complicit in and profited from crimes of modern slavery by using forced labour to build the Bisha Mine in Eritrea. The largest sectors represented are the banking sector (5) and software and services (4), followed by consumer durables and apparel (2). 16/10/2017. Slavery's long shadow: The impact of 200 years enslavement in Canada. Canada imports over US$390 million worth of fish from countries suspected of having modern slavery in their fishing industries. By making corporate responsibility data accessible, comparable and free for all, the organisation aims to provide society with the tools it needs to encourage companies to respond to social and environmental challenges. For more information on the Nevsun case, please see: Yapp, S 2018, The Nevsun Effect: A New Era of Corporate Responsibility, Walk Free Foundation Insight Series 02. A statement by IBI group81 is not signed and includes details on a code of conduct. The law freed enslaved people aged 25 and over and made it illegal to bring enslaved people into Upper Canada. "How do you think they could catch fugitives, if not to have networks of people who were willing to put their necks on the line to catch people for a reward?". Appoint an Independent Anti-Slavery Commissioner who will be responsible for overseeing a coordinated response to modern slavery across all sectors. The Global Slavery Index. Although the Canadian government has not yet introduced legislation to ensure government agencies take steps to eliminate modern slavery from their supply chains, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau noted in 2016 that “Canada will undertake efforts to review its federal procurement guidelines and policies to determine if there are potential vulnerabilities to abuse by human traffickers.”66 In September 2017, Public Services and Procurement Canada (PSCP) presented to the Committee of Experts of the Mechanism for Follow-up on the Implementation of the Inter-American Convention Against Corruption (MESICIC) in relation to updates of the current Code of Conduct for Procurement. A 2017 report by the United Nations Human Rights Working Group called on Canada to recognize the lasting damage done by slavery and segregation. ‘Government of Canada takes step towards ethical procurement of apparel’ 2017. Introduce legislation that requires large businesses to report on steps taken to eliminate modern slavery within their business and supply chains. Figures released by Statistics Canada in 2017 revealed that hate crimes across the country rose for three consecutive years, with crimes targeting Black populations being the most common. Marwaha, S 2017, ‘Anyone can be a victim’: Canadian high school girls being lured into sex trade. Additionally, section 279.02 criminalises receiving material benefits for the purpose of committing or facilitating trafficking and section 279.03 makes it a criminal offence to withhold or destroy a person’s identity documents for the purpose of trafficking.53 Forced labour and modern slavery are not criminalised in Canada’s penal code as distinct offences. The majority of forced sexual exploitation cases in Canada are reported in the densely populated Greater Toronto Area.18 In 2015, Peel Regional Police, which services the greater Toronto area, brought 244 charges related to sex trafficking and in the first half of 2016 alone they brought 149 charges.19 In 2016, a Calgary woman was sentenced to eight years of prison for trafficking two young women and forcing them into sex work.20 In April 2018, a 16-year-old boy was charged with sex trafficking of a girl in Edmonton. The study also found the workers were a "unique and vulnerable occupational group. He pays particular attention to two other factors, enslavement (which rarely occurred outside Africa) and the spread of slavery in Africa after the abolition of the Atlantic slave trade. This is slavery," she says. In 2017, foreign workers who claim they paid thousands of dollars to obtain non-existent jobs at Mac’s convenience stores had their claims certified as a class action lawsuit in the Supreme Court of British Columbia.6 The four workers named in the suit allege they paid up to US$8,500 each in illegal fees to Surrey-based immigration consultant firms to obtain jobs as temporary foreign workers in Western Canada, but upon arrival in Canada discovered there was no job awaiting them.7, The SAWP was designed in the 1960s to fill Canada’s labour shortage for seasonal agricultural labour and allows Canadian farm businesses to hire workers from Mexico and several Caribbean countries on temporary visas during harvesting season.8 In 2015, over 40,000 migrant workers were employed in Canada through the SAWP.9 In 2016, the death of a SAWP migrant farm worker from Jamaica caused public outcry, revealing that many SAWP migrant workers are working under exploitative conditions and are often not appropriately treated following injury.10 A 2014 study reports that during 2001 and 2011, 787 repatriations occurred among 170,315 migrant farm workers arriving in Ontario. For a detailed methodology of how these products were identified, please refer to Appendix 3 in the 2018 GSI report. Pagtakhan, R 2017, ‘Pathway to Canadian citizenship needed for all temporary foreign workers: Pagtakhan’. While there were no cotton fields or sugar plantations in Canada, the treatment of slaves was no better than elsewhere. In 1793 Upper Canada (now Ontario) passed the Anti‐slavery Act. Migrant Workers Alliance for Change & Coalition for Migrant Workers 2017. Ensure there is dedicated and adequate funding for victim assistance available for all provinces and territories. Slavery Abolition Act, (1833), in British history, act of Parliament that abolished slavery in most British colonies, freeing more than 800,000 enslaved Africans in the Caribbean and South Africa as well as a small number in Canada. At the present time, Canada lags behind many of its most important trading partners in ensuring that businesses are addressing modern slavery in their operations and supply chains. The Wikirate platform enables university students and the general public to access the statements and answer a series of questions assessing whether the statements meet the requirements of the Act (signed by a board member, approved by the board and hosted on the company homepage) and if they detail policies that enable the business to better respond to modern slavery. So far, 118 cases have resulted in human trafficking specific and/or related convictions, but 296 cases remain before the court (involving about 506 accused perpetrators and 420 victims).1 These figures, of course, do not consider the unknown number of victims that are not reported. Draft and adopt a new National Action Plan (NAP) immediately, with an adequate budget attached to it, taking into account the learnings from the evaluation of the previous NAP. ( See also Underground Railroad.) Abolish the ‘employer-specific work permit’ of the Temporary Foreign Worker Program (TFWP) immediately. Since the 16th century, settlers, officials and historians have used the term "Canada" — often interchangeably with other names, from New France and British North America to Upper Canada and Lower Canada. Marchitelli, R 2016, ‘Migrant worker program called ‘worse than slavery’ after injured participants sent home without treatment’. In Ontario, Black women are likelier than whites to be unemployed, despite having higher levels of education. Of those affected, 35 percent were under the age of 18, 31 percent were aged 19 to 24, and 25 percent were aged 25 to 34, with the remaining nine percent aged 35 years and older. Afua Cooper is James Robinson Johnston Chair in Black Canadian Studies at Dalhousie University. Is there a connection between the enslavement of Black Canadians and their overwhelming presence in the criminal justice system today? All statements analysed by the project can be found on the relevant business page at https://wikirate.org/UK_Modern_Slavery_Act_Research. The data is taken from the BACI 2015 dataset (available from: http://www.cepii.fr/cepii/en/bdd_modele/presentation.asp?id=1). Slavery in Canada. The Canadian government also announced plans to establish an Advisory Board on Responsible Business Conduct to advise the government and the CORE on responsible business conduct abroad.84, At the time of writing, the ground-breaking case of Araya v Nevsun Resources is before the Canadian courts.85 In 2008, Nevsun, a Canadian resources company, contracted the Eritrean government to build the Bisha mine and infrastructure, which involved the recruitment of local Eritrean workers. The statements analysed by the Modern Slavery Act Project were the most recently available statements at the time the research was conducted – in most cases, this would be the 2016 statement. Human Trafficking National Coordination Centre 2017. The UK Modern Slavery Act Research project employs a crowdsourcing approach to reviewing and assessing the statements housed on the BHRRC platform, recognising the value of having a fully transparent platform, but also the enormous amount of time and resources it would take to conduct this analysis. The top five imported products at risk of modern slavery were identified from an original list of 15 products considered at risk of modern slavery. The CORE will be mandated to investigate allegations of human rights abuses linked to Canadian corporate activity abroad and will have the power to independently investigate, report, recommend, and remediate, as well as to monitor implementation of the remedies it imposes. Some businesses have subsequently updated and improved their statements, and the updated statement will be included in the next iteration of the research. In 2014, three Eritrean workers filed a lawsuit against the mining company in the Supreme Court of Canada. See https://wikirate.org/Westridge_Construction_Ltd?filter%5Bmetric_value%5D=all&filter%5Bproject%5D=UK+Modern+Slavery+Act+Research for more details. The law took effect on 1st August 1834 and put into practice a transitional phase which included reassigning roles of slaves as “apprentices” which was later brought to an end in 1840. It existed both under the French and the English. Department of Immigration and Citizenship 2018, Lindsay, B 2017, ‘Foreign workers allege ‘life savings’ paid for Mac’s jobs that didn’t exist’. Historian Afua Cooper talks about what it's like to be black in Canada today and always under surveillance. However, slavery continued in other areas of the British Empire including the territories run by the East India Company, Ceylon (modern day Sri Lanka) and St Helena. More than 50,000 people took part in the study, which was able to identify more details of the "genetic impact" the trade has had on present-day populations in the Americas. ‘Medical repatriation of migrant farm workers in Ontario: a descriptive analysis’. Canadaim Global Immigration and Law Firm 2017. Listen to Part 1 of this series: Canada's slavery secret: The whitewashing of 200 years of enslavement. The Commonwealth Act establishes a national Modern Slavery Reporting Requirement that seeks to uncover the impact of large organisations on modern slavery both in Australia and abroad. All provinces should establish a coordinating body responsible for coordinating the implementation of the province’s strategy to combat human trafficking, similar to Ontario’s newly established Provincial Anti-Human Trafficking Coordination Office. Techniques used by traffickers include building dependence by buying gifts and posing as boyfriends.32 Younger male mem… Exchange rates as at 17 April 2018: US$1=Can$1.25737. Business and Human Rights Resource Centre 2018. 8 Of those affected by forced marriage, 92 per cent were female, six per cent male, just over one percent were transgender, and less than one percent were unknown.22 The report notes this number may however be skewed due to a lack of outreach to male clients. Two-thirds of the interviewed workers also reported that they were recruited through an employment agency which charged high fees for organising their employment and documentation. The position’s scope will be multi-sectoral, initially focusing on the mining, oil and gas, and garment sectors, but it is expected that it will be extended to other business sectors. Photo credit: Jim Rankin/Toronto Star via Getty Images, Imports of products at risk of modern slavery to Canada. However, the Canadian government pledged during the IV Global Conference on the Sustained Eradication of Child Labour to sign the ILO Forced Labour Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention of 1930 as soon as possible.54 Forced marriage is a criminal offence since 2015 according to section 293.1 of the criminal code.55, Victims of modern slavery are assisted through support services funded through the Justice Canada Victims Fund.56 However, dedicated funding for victim assistance reportedly varies across different provinces and territories.57 The Department of Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada (IRCC) issues short-term Temporary Residents Permits (TRPs) (up to 180 days) to suspected victims of trafficking and longer-term TRPS (valid up to three years) to identified victims of trafficking to enable them to legally stay in Canada and receive health care and a work permit.58 In 2016, the government issued 67 TRPs, of which 26 were first-time permits and 41 were re-issues to victims who had previously received a permit.59. The remaining 22 cases were international trafficking cases where victims were trafficked across international borders, predominantly for the purpose of forced labour. Research conducted in 2012 and 2013 found that workers in the illegal gold mining industry in Peru find themselves trapped in debt-bondage like situations where they have to pay off excessive debts to recruiters and are threatened when they attempt to leave the mines.27 Fish is another product of significant import value that may be at risk of modern slavery. Forty-one percent of forced marriage clients were taken out of the country (either taken out of the country they lived in and brought to Canada or taken out of Canada) to be married.24 Fifty percent of individuals who came to see service providers were reportedly not aware of their rights with respect to forced marriage.25, While modern slavery clearly occurs within Canada, the realities of global trade and business make it inevitable that Canada, like many other countries globally, will also be exposed to the risk of modern slavery through the products it imports. IV Global Conferenced on the Sustained Eradication of Child Labour 2017. Sugarcane is one of the largest agricultural commodities in the world.28 Canada receives 63 percent of its overall sugarcane imports from Brazil (US$ 243.3 million) whose sugarcane industry is considered at risk of using modern slavery.29 Brazil was also the top producer of sugar from sugarcane in 2015 and dominates world trade, accounting for 40 percent of global exports of sugar.30, According to data on identified cases, modern slavery takes place largely for the purpose of forced sexual exploitation in Canada; women represent the majority of identified victims.31 The majority of sex trafficking victims are reportedly Canadian-born teenage girls, some as young as 13, who are recruited in various ways, including at school, through social media, and at shopping malls. The Human Trafficking National Coordination Centre (HTNCC) reported that as of November 2017, they had identified 455 cases of human trafficking since 2005. Marwaha, S 2017, ‘’Anyone can be a victim’: Canadian high school girls being lured into sex trade’. 77. The evaluation report emphasises the need for a NAP and recommends improving capacity to collect national data on trafficking and implementing a mechanism to connect victims with dedicated support services and facilitate reporting of human trafficking cases, among others. "11, Migrant workers who previously entered Canada under the Live-in Caregiver Program (LCP) are vulnerable to abuse and exploitation. See www.wikirate.org. As records show, slavery in what is now known as Canada began long before European traders and colonists arrived. We received 59 submissions from 41 universities and three non-academic organisations, from across the UK and around the world. Justin Trudeau, Prime Minister of Canada, 2016. It was being domestics. Migrant Worker Solidarity Network Manitoba 2016. Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada 2016. Migrant workers from Jamaica prepare to sort beets. 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