Frantz Fanon : De l’anticolonialisme à la critique postcoloniale. Paris, Éditions Amsterdam.  First, it allows the colonisers to escape the apparent contradictions between Western values of democracy and equality on the one hand, and the undemocratic and extremely violent oppression of the native population on the other (Rabaka, 2010: 115). Historical examples have demonstrated that colonial rule cannot be divorced from violence – even attempts at winning ‘hearts and minds’ of the subjects are inaccurate and disguise the violence … 34, No. Instead, early outlets for pent-up aggression include native cultural practices and especially internal conflicts between native individuals and tribes, which are exacerbated by the colonisers seeking to strengthen their rule by exploiting those divides (Sartre, 2001: 16). The writings of Frantz Fanon influenced the thinking of Irish Republicans from the 1970s onwards (2). This work can be used for background reading and research, but should not be cited as an expert source or used in place of scholarly articles/books. It follows that, as opposed to the rural peasantry who have nothing to lose in the case of a violent anticolonial revolution, the urban proletariat has an interest in negotiation and compromise with the settlers, which will never lead to complete independence or the successful construction of a national identity. His book (Wretched of the Earth) was his most celebrated work, as it explored the violent nature of nationalistic movements. He was also an activist, which means that he understood that theorising alone is not enough but one has to do something in order for the world to change. : 33). Martin, T., ‘Rescuing Fanon from the Critics,’ African Studies Review, Vol. Fanon, joined the French army at 17 and felt disoriented by the racism he experienced during his time there. Members of this social stratum tended to strive for assimilation… It becomes clear, then, that while Fanon’s theses on decolonisation seem to be materially deterministic to the extent that the internal contradictions of colonialism inevitably give rise to potentially anticolonial resistance and aggression, he departs from this determinism in according a role to human agency in successfully focusing that aggression back at the colonisers (Fanon, 2001: 46, 108; Forsythe, 1973: 162). Furthermore, perhaps due to his own intimate involvement in the Algerian struggle for independence, it is often unclear whether Fanon is describing how decolonisation actually works, or how it ought to (Ibid. What made his writing radical is the length he was ready to go to transform those situations of injustice and inequity. In fact, Fanon was acutely aware of the dangers and limitations of the unconstrained and arbitrary use of violence. Frantz Omar Fanon (/ ˈ f æ n ə n /, US: / f æ ˈ n ɒ̃ /; French: [fʁɑ̃ts fanɔ̃]; 20 July 1925 – 6 December 1961), also known as Ibrahim Frantz Fanon, was a French West Indian psychiatrist and political philosopher from the French colony of Martinique (today a French department).His works have become influential in the fields of post-colonial studies, critical theory and Marxism. Second, the internalisation of dehumanising and violent colonial relations destroys the natives’ ‘sense of selfhood’ (Gibson, 2003: 107) allowing for continued colonial exploitation due to ‘a belief in fatality [which] removes all blame from the oppressor’ (Fanon, 2001: 42). In order to overcome the legacy of colonialism, it is necessary to also decolonise the intellectual landscape of the country in question, and, ultimately, decolonise the mind of the formerly colonised. He spent most of his very brief life trying to attend to those who were afflicted by all kinds of mental illnesses, including some of his enemies. I call myself a revolutionary and Fanon explains it best: to be a revolutionary you must be very conscious. Can It Ever Revive? It is fighting for your humanness and we have to start seeing violence in a different way. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Nevertheless, despite the aggression, resistance and thus revolutionary character of the rural peasantry, Fanon acknowledges the need for carefully organising the anticolonial struggle, and doubts the ability of the peasantry to organise themselves. However, despite the myriad tools used to dehumanise the natives, they are never fully convinced of their inferiority, ‘and it is precisely at the moment [the native] realizes his humanity that he begins to sharpen the weapons with which he will secure [the native population’s] victory’ (Ibid. In order to understand what might be involved in the decolonisation of the … 427-445. We must also be able to find ourselves in writing and in Fanon I do not find myself as a black woman, as a black girl in the township. In the early stages of resistance, then, the unifying national identity of the native population becomes defined in complete contradistinction to the colonial settlers, and the use of anticolonial violence leads to the immediate identification of its perpetrator as part of the national struggle: ‘the process of identification is automatic’ (Fanon, 2001: 54). He made me understand how the process of devising toxic black masculinity comes from the fact that whiteness imposes its own masculinity on black men. Very much sincere, Henry Price Jr. aka Obediah Buntu IL-Khan aka Kankan. Nolwandle Zondi is a graduate from the formerly existing University of Pretoria’s journalism department. He still falls into that category which fetishises [white women] and doesn’t see us as human beings. 1 (1976), pp. Fanon’s vision of the new independent national culture is clearly problematic. In his analysis, Fanon does utilise Marxist class categorisation, based on the relationship to the means of production, but recognises that such categorisation cannot be separated from considerations of race and racism, which are integral aspects of colonial society (Fairchild, 1994: 193). Is Decolonisation Always a Violent Phenomenon? Born on the French colony Martinique, the darkest of eight children to a middle-class family, Fanon created works that continue to inspire and ignite the revolutionary spirit in black activists around the world. Such a national identity and culture is constructed, firstly, by looking to the past and reclaiming the native’s history from the immobility to which it is condemned by the colonial system, and, second, by looking to the future in order to find a new and independent path to development (Fanon, 2001: 40, 252-255). Furthermore, the international context of decolonisation in other countries may also restrict the colonisers’ response to the natives’ national struggle (Fanon, 2001: 55). Sartre, J. P., ‘Preface,’ in F. Fanon, The Wretched of the Earth, translated by Constance Farrington (London: Penguin, 2001). The Contribution of Frantz Fanon to the Process of the Liberation of the People by Mireille Fanon-Mendès France, translated by Donato Fhunsu F ANON, whether the issue is insanity, racism, or “universalism” hijacked by the powerful, does not, really, cease to posit the possibility of a “liv-ing together” in the form of a translation into But it cannot come as a result of magical practices, nor of a … His works mainly centered on understanding the psychopathology that most colonial powers used to demean their subjects. She dreams of setting a pile of cash on fire. A response to violence isn’t violence. Fanon reports that the whole revolutionary movement valued the participation of women and supported what was to become an invaluable part of the revolution (Fanon, 1959: 60). Contribution à une généalogie de la critique postcoloniale. It is published as part of our mission to showcase peer-leading papers written by students during their studies. If we liken it to violence then we are not doing justice to the plight of black people because fighting for your humanness can’t be violent when you are trampled upon every single day. Increasingly his work is being featured, although he might not necessarily be part of the official curriculum. Fanon describes decolonization in the Wretched of the Earth and the problems with it. Frantz Fanon is a representative of this kind of decolonisation, given his appropriation of the work of Western authors such as Karl Marx, Friedrich Nietzsche, Sigmund Freud and Jean- Paul Sartre, but not to emulate or simply repeat their insights. This is achieved by the use of language that degrades the natives to the status of animals, the application of racist ‘scientific’ theories of the inferiority of the native population, and concentrated attacks on indigenous cultural practice (Fanon, 2001: 32-33, 244; 2004: 43). 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