CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (, Learn how and when to remove these template messages, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "Quantifying the Benefits of Using Function Points", "More Than a Gigabuck: Estimating GNU/Linux's Size", "Counting potatoes: the size of Debian 2.2", "Debian Wheezy: US$19 Billion. This study found that Debian GNU/Linux 2.2 included over 55 million SLOC, and if developed in a conventional proprietary way would have required 14,005 person-years and cost US$1.9 billion to develop. E=1.4L 0.93 DOC=30.4L 0.90 D=4.6L 0.26. Thus, SLOC can be effective in estimating effort. – These are the questions that often arise. In this case study, the five software metrics- lines of code (LOC), cyclomatic complexity (MVG), Halstead volume (HV), number of modules (NOM) and lines of comment (COM) have been utilized to analyze a set of three java based sorting programs. By the same token, a hand-coded custom GUI class could easily be more demanding than a simple device driver; hence the shortcoming of this metric. In this case study, the five software metrics- lines of code (LOC), cyclomatic complexity (MVG), Halstead volume (HV), number of modules (NOM) and lines of comment (COM) have been utilized to analyze a set of three java based sorting programs. Possibly including the whole iLife suite, not just the operating system and usually bundled applications. And IBM wanted to sort of make it the religion about how we got paid. Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later. Process Metrics:These are the measures of various characteristics of the software development process. The Software Engineering Laboratory established a model called SEL model, for estimating its software production. Ugh! and byte code) are freely and immediately available and are classified based on the main software metrics identified in the scientific literature. Once measures are collected they are converted into metrics for use. They are extracted from the source code of the software, and … Source code metrics are essential components in the software measurement process. Even if a metric is not a measurement, often the two terms are used as synonyms. It is much easier to create tools that measure physical SLOC, and physical SLOC definitions are easier to explain. Increase return on investment (ROI) 2. And ensuring maintainable source code relies on a number of factors, such as testability and understandability. Software Metrics Product vs. process Most metrics are indirect: ... ‘‘The nature of the software engineering process is too poorly understood to provide a basis for selecting a ... Programmer Productivity Metrics (2) Take total number of source code lines delivered and divide by Software Metrics MCQ. 2. Developer's experience: implementation of a specific logic differs based on the level of experience of the developer. Before writing this article, we digested the metrics proposed by the top 20 Google results in the domain of software metrics. SLOC counting exhibits further accuracy issues at comparing programs written in different languages unless adjustment factors are applied to normalize languages. The more management is focusing on lines of code, the more incentive the programmer has to expand his code with unneeded complexity. You just clipped your first slide! Difference in languages: consider two applications that provide the same functionality (screens, reports, databases). Many[2] have advocated the use of function points instead of SLOC as a measure of functionality, but since function points are highly correlated to SLOC (and cannot be automatically measured) this is not a universally held view. As you might imagine, every source had their own theories about which metrics mattered most. Counting SLOC as productivity measure has its caveats, since a developer can develop only a few lines and yet be far more productive in terms of functionality than a developer who ends up creating more lines (and generally spending more effort). The following example shows a comparison of a "hello world" program written in C, and the same program written in COBOL - a language known for being particularly verbose. For coder's self-esteem: A: Number of SLOC (Source Lines of code) For coder's mother: A: Eat more of these soft French rolls and drink tea. Oh, it's sort of a 10K-LOC project. Experiments have repeatedly confirmed that effort is highly correlated with SLOC[citation needed], that is, programs with larger SLOC values take more time to develop. A similar study was later made of Debian GNU/Linux version 2.2 (also known as "Potato"); this operating system was originally released in August 2000. The goal of tracking and analyzing software metrics is to determine the quality of the current product or process, improve that quality and predict the quality once the software development project is complete. 1 comment line: tools must account for all code and comments regardless of comment placement. It is an authority within software engineering. Many useful comparisons involve only the order of magnitude of lines of code in a project. ", "Live from WWDC 2006: Steve Jobs Keynote", "Linux Kernel Development: How Fast it is Going, Who is Doing It, What They are Doing, and Who is Sponsoring It", "Summary, Outlook, Statistics - The H Open: News and Features", "a short history of lines of code (loc) metrics", "From the Ground Up: The DIMACS Software Security Workshop", "Software Size Measurement: A Framework for Counting Source Statements", Definitions of Practical Source Lines of Code, Effective Lines of Code eLOC Metrics for popular Open Source Software, "Tanenbaum outlines his vision for a grandma-proof OS", C. M. 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Psychology: a programmer whose productivity is being measured in lines of code will have an incentive to write unnecessarily verbose code. There are two major types of SLOC measures: physical SLOC (LOC) and logical SLOC (LLOC). Other objectives of using software metrics are listed below. Specific definitions of these two measures vary, but the most common definition of physical SLOC is a count of lines in the text of the program's source code excluding comment lines.[1]. These Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ) should be practiced to improve the Software Engineering skills required for various interviews (campus interview, walk-in interview, company interview), placements, entrance exams and other competitive examinations. To improve any process, it is necessary to measure its specified attributes, develop a set of meaningful metrics based on these attributes, and then use these metrics to obtain indicators in order to derive a strategy for process improvement. Smart contracts’ source codes have been validated by EtherScan, and each contract comes with its own associated software metrics as computed by the freely available software PASO. Robert E. Park (while at the Software Engineering Institute) and others developed a framework for defining SLOC values, to enable people to carefully explain and define the SLOC measure used in a project. Good developers may merge multiple code modules into a single module, improving the system yet appearing to have negative productivity because they remove code. These languages were developed at the time when punched cards were the main form of data entry for programming. For business: A: Number of man-hours. Are data declarations included? Anyway, that always makes my back just crinkle up at the thought of the whole thing. Since quantitative measurements are essential in all sciences, there is a continuous effort by computer science practitioners and theoreticians to bring similar approaches to software … Though organizations like SEI and IEEE have published some guidelines in an attempt to standardize counting, it is difficult to put these into practice especially in the face of newer and newer languages being introduced every year. Tracking and reporting of productivity and defect rates poses a serious problem in this case, since defects cannot be attributed to a particular language subsequent to integration of the system. What happens if a statement extends over several lines? You can’t use a … Many empirical software engineering studies show that there is a great need for repositories where source code is acquired, filtered and classified. Most of the literature about software metrics on the source code is within one system. There are several cost, schedule, and effort estimation models which use SLOC as an input parameter, including the widely used Constructive Cost Model (COCOMO) series of models by Barry Boehm et al., PRICE Systems True S and Galorath's SEER-SEM. Many empirical software engineering studies show that there is a need for repositories where source codes are acquired, filtered and classified. Debian 7.0 was released in May 2013. The lines of code needed to develop the application would certainly not be the same. Quality and reliability of software. A directory of Objective Type Questions covering all the Computer Science subjects. A comprehensive overview of these metrics is provided by the Software Engineering Institute [SEI]. The two important software characteristics are: 1. Scope for automation of counting: since line of code is a physical entity, manual counting effort can be easily eliminated by automating the counting process. In the PBS documentary Triumph of the Nerds, Microsoft executive Steve Ballmer criticized the use of counting lines of code: In IBM there's a religion in software that says you have to count K-LOCs, and a K-LOC is a thousand lines of code. Source lines of code (SLOC), also known as lines of code (LOC), is a software metric used to measure the size of a computer program by counting the number of lines in the text of the program's source code. Lack of accountability: lines-of-code measure suffers from some fundamental problems. Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your clips. For instance, graphical user interface builders automatically generate all the source code for a graphical control elements simply by dragging an icon onto a workspace. Modern software tools often have the capability to auto-generate enormous amounts of code with a few clicks of a mouse. 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